TO PRODUCE CORN AND SOYBEANS IN ILLINOIS-2002
the total of all economic costs per acre for growing corn
in Illinois averaged $411 in the northern section, $416 in
the central section for farmland with "high" soil
ratings, $391 in the central section for farmland with "low"
soil ratings, and $350 in the southern section. Soybean costs
per acre were $337, $341, $312 and $275, respectively (see
Table 1). Costs were lower in the southern Illinois primarily
because of lower land costs. The total of all economic costs
per bushel in the different sections of the state ranged from
$2.59 to $3.61 for corn and from $6.24 to $8.09 for soybeans.
Variations in this cost were related to weather, yields, and
land quality. Southern Illinois had the highest costs per
bushel to produce corn and soybeans because of below average
yields caused by dry weather last summer.
figures were obtained from farm business records kept by farmers
enrolled in the Illinois Farm Business Farm Management Association.
The samples included only farms which had no livestock and
had more than 260 acres of productive and nearly level soils
in each area of the state. Farms located in the 22 counties
north and northwest of the Illinois River are included in
the sample for northern Illinois. Farms from 36 counties below
a line from about Mattoon to Alton are in the sample for southern
Illinois. The remaining 44 counties make up the sample for
central Illinois. The sample farms averaged 869 tillable acres
in northern Illinois, 1,000 acres in the central section with
high soil ratings, 979 acres in the central section with lower
soil ratings, and 1,248 acres in southern Illinois.
OF PRODUCTION FOR CORN COMPARED TO 2001
per bushel of corn in 2002 were lower for northern
and central Illinois with the lower rated soils compared to
2001. Costs per bushel in southern Illinois and in
the central section with the higher rated soils were higher
in 2002. Costs per bushel were 3 cents lower in northern Illinois,
5 cents lower in central Illinois with the lower rated soils,
18 cents higher in central Illinois with the higher rated
soils and $1.13 higher in southern Illinois.
corn yield in 2002 was 5 bushels per acre lower than 2001
in northern Illinois, 6 to 16 bushels lower in central Illinois
and 54 bushels per acre lower in southern Illinois. The 2002
average corn yield in the different geographical locations
ranged from 2 to 31 bushels per acre lower than the four-year
average from 1999 to 2002.
per acre were lower in all the different geographic
regions in Illinois compared to 2001. Across the state total
costs per acre to produce corn ranged from a 3 percent to
a 6 percent decrease. Fertilizer, nonland interest charges
and land costs decreased the most of any cost categories.
COST OF PRODUCTION FOR SOYBEANS COMPARED TO 2001
costs per bushel of soybeans decreased in all areas
of the state except southern Illinois compared to 2001. Yields
were higher in central Illinois and lower in northern and
southern Illinois compared to the year before. Soybean yields
ranged from 2 bushels per acre higher to 11 bushels per acre
lower in 2002 as compared to 2001. Extreme dry weather conditions
caused southern Illinois yields to be 11 bushels per acre
less than the year before. Changes in costs per bushel ranged
from a 64-cent decrease in central Illinois with the lower
rated soils to a $1.60 increase in southern Illinois.
corn, total costs per acre decreased in all geographic
regions of the state compared to 2001. Costs decreased $10
per acre in northern Illinois and in central Illinois with
the higher rated soils, $18 per acre in central Illinois with
the lower rated soils and $17 per acre in southern Illinois.
Average soybean yields in the different areas ranged from
6 bushels per acre below to 3 bushels per acre higher than
the four-year average from 1999 to 2002.
costs to produce corn for all combined areas of the state
were $401 per acre. This figure decreased 5 percent compared
to the year before. Many costs were similar to the year before
with fertilizer, the nonland interest charge and land costs
accounting for the majority of the decrease. In 2002, cash
costs accounted for 40 percent of the total cost of production
for corn, other nonland costs were 31 percent, and land costs
were 29 percent. The average corn yield for all combined areas
of the state was 145 bushels per acre resulting in a total
cost of production of $2.76 per bushel. The average corn yield
was the lowest since 1997, when the average was 138 bushels
per acre. Total costs per acre were the lowest since 1995
when they were $395 per acre. Total costs per bushel were
the highest since 1997.
cost per acre to produce soybeans decreased, from $338 per
acre in 2001 to $326 per acre in 2002. Generally speaking,
the same expenses that decreased for corn also decreased for
soybeans. Variable costs accounted for 32 percent of the total
cost of production for soybeans, other nonland costs 33 percent
and land costs 35 percent. The average soybean yield for all
combined areas of the state was 48 bushels per acre resulting
in a total cost of production of $6.79 per bushel. Total costs
per acre were the lowest since 1995.
complete discussion of how some of the costs are calculated
can be found under narrative reports in the management-enterprise
cost section of farmdoc.
Lattz, Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics